DNA purification is an incredibly common and essential procedure in molecular biology. Purification of DNA aims at making it possible to separate the desired genetic material (chromosomal material) from contaminants such as proteins as well as RNA and cell membrane. This is a vital procedure in almost every molecular endeavor and must be done correctly in order to produce high quality, usable DNA.
There are several different methods for DNA purification. The choice depends on a myriad of factors like the source materials and downstream applications, cost and time limitations. Typical genomic and plasmid DNA purification methods include chemical treatment, enzymatic digestion or mechanical destruction of cell samples or tissue followed by salting-out of the proteins and the precipitation of DNA using alcohol.
Ethanol precipitation is a cost-effective, quick and simple method https://mpsciences.com/2021/02/15/science-supplies-for-students/ of desalting and concentration DNA. DNA molecules aggregate in the presence monovalent cations like sodium, and then are removed out of solution using high levels of ethanol. This method is used to eliminate organic compounds, and other impurities. It is usually employed in conjunction with other purification methods.
Anion exchange chromatography is another popular method for DNA purification. DNA in a solution is bound to positively charged resins by the interaction between the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone as well as the positively charged surface molecules of the resin. During the binding steps, contaminants are removed by using a stringent washing process. The purified DNA then is eluted using low-salt conditions.